Saturday, January 18, 2014

Fukushima nuclear debacle thread - January 18 - 25 , 2014 --- Information pertaining to the conditions at and around the Fukushima plant , information on radioactive contamination in Japan and West Coast US , food chain impacts ........

Fukushima Diary ...

23,800,000,000 Bq/m3 of Cs-134/137 was measured from retained water in reactor2

Note : If you are from the international mass media, Don’t read this site before having a contact with me.

High level of contaminated water is still retained in the basement floor of reactor2.
Tepco measured 23,800,000,000 Bq/m3 of Cesium-134/137 from the retained water. The sample was taken on 1/15/2014. 69,000,000,000 Bq/m3 of All β (including Strontium-90) was also measured from the same sample.

From the retained water in reactor1, they also measured 3,700,000,000 Bq/m3 of Cesium-134/137, but it was lower than reactor2.
Reactor2 building remains relatively sound. It is not known what happened in 311, but the contamination level can be worse than other reactors.
(cf, Tepco to investigate the operating floor of reactor2 by drilling from the top of the building [URL])

Tepco to investigate the operating floor of reactor2 by drilling from the top of the building

Note : If you are from the international mass media, Don’t read this site before having a contact with me.

From 1/27/2014, Tepco is going to drill 12 locations on the top of reactor2 so that they will investigate the operation floor of reactor2. Reactor2 building remains relatively sound. It is not known what actually happened in 311.
The purpose of this investigation is to research the radiation level, check the soundness of crane, refueling machine and the building.
Drilling and monitoring will be operated by remote-control, however, the necessary machines will be installed by human workers. According to Tepco, the highest reading on the top of the building is 4.0 mSv/h.
Tepco also have robots enter the operating floor from blow-out panel. The robots are to drill 3 parts of the floor and wall to take 3 concrete core samples.
The highest reading on the operation floor is 880 mSv/h. They are to analyze how deep the contamination penetrated into floor and wall concretes.

Tepco “Don’t know where the rest of coolant water is escaping from reactor3″

Note : If you are from the international mass media, Don’t read this site before having a contact with me.

Following up this article.. Reactor3 coolant water leakage → 1/3 of injected water was leaking / Tepco doesn’t know when it started [URL]

In the press conference of 1/22/2014, Fukushima chief Ono stated that the rest of 2/3 injected water must be leaking out from somewhere of reactor3, but they can’t identify the specific location.

Tepco is injecting 5.5 m3 of coolant water into reactor3 vessel per hour. 1.5 m3/h of the water was found leaking out to the building possibly after touching the molten fuel.
Where and how the rest of 4.0 m3/h of coolant water leaks are not investigated because of the high level of contamination.

Direct leakage of reactor3 coolant water → Door blasted due to the 311 explosion, no robots can enter

Note : If you are from the international mass media, Don’t read this site before having a contact with me.

Following up this article.. Reactor3 coolant water leakage → 1/3 of injected water was leaking / Tepco doesn’t know when it started [URL]

The area called “MSIV room”, where the vessel coolant water is leaking out to the building from, can’t be investigated even by robots, according to Tepco.
Tepco assumes the coolant water is coming from the inside of the vessel to this room. However,the access door is severely destroyed inward due to the explosion of 311, even the robots cannot enter.
Currently they have no specific strategy to identify the leaking point, but they are searching the possibility to lift down a camera from the room above MSIV room.
The area above MSIV room is relatively less contaminated, Tepco reports.

The video below captures the leaking water flowing from MSIV room to the drain outside of the room. The volume of water decreased on 1/21/2014, when the video was taken.
Tepco assumes it is because another drain inside of MSIV room was accidentally cleared, the water started flowing into this drain instead of coming out of the room.
The drain is connected to the basement floor of the reactor3 building.

220 fuel assemblies removed from reactor4 pool by 1/22/2014

Note : If you are from the international mass media, Don’t read this site before having a contact with me.

Following up this article.. Tepco doesn’t have the enough room to accept all the spent fuel in the common pool [URL]

In the press conference of 1/22/2014, Tepco announced they have completed transferring 220 assemblies of spent / new fuel from reactor4 pool.
They have transferred 10 casks. On 1/23/2014, they are to transfer the 11th cask to the common pool.

Ex - SKF

#Fukushima I NPP Reactor 3 Water Leak from MSIV Room: It's Most Likely the Water from Inside the Pressure Vessel

This is today's update on the water leak from the MSIV (Main Steam Isolation Valve) Room of Reactor 3 at Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. (Previous posts on the subject are here and here.)

TEPCO says they did the nuclide analysis of the water sample that the robot collected. The temperature and the levels of contamination indicate it is the water that comes out of the Pressure Vessel/Containment Vessel.

TEPCO's way of saying it is that "the water is not the one that goes into the reactor."

However, the levels of contamination of this water is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the highly contaminated water in the reactor building basements, which seems to me to indicate that this leaking water is diverted out of the Pressure Vessel it comes in full contact with the corium (wherever it is - part at the bottom of the PV, part buried into the concrete floor of the Containment Vessel).

From TEPCO's alert for the press, 1/19/2014:
・セシウム134 :7.0×10^2 Bq/cm3
・セシウム137 :1.7×10^3 Bq/cm3
・コバルト60  :2.5×10^1 Bq/cm3
・全ベータ :2.4×10^4 Bq/cm3

Nuclide analysis of the leaked water: sample taken on 1/19/2014
Cesium-134: 7.0×10^2 Bq/cm3 (700 Bq/cm3)
Cesium-137: 1.7×10^3 Bq/cm3 (1,700 Bq/cm3)
Cobalt-60: 2.5×10^1 Bq/cm3 (25 Bq/cm3)
All-beta: 2.4×10^4 Bq/cm3 (24,000 Bq/cm3)



Temperature of the leaked water: measured at 5PM on 1/19/2014
About 20 degrees Celsius

*Atmospheric temperature at the location of the leak: 7 degrees Celsius (measured at 10AM, 1/19/2014)
Temperature of the water being injected: 7 degrees Celsius (measured at 5PM, 1/19/2014)

・セシウム134 :検出限界値未満
・セシウム137 :検出限界値未満
・コバルト60  :検出限界値未満
・全ベータ :2.8 Bq/cm3

Latest nuclide analysis of water being injected into reactors: sample taken on 12/10/2013
Cesium-134: below detection level
Cesium-137: below detection level

Cobalt-60: below detection level
All-beta: 2.8 Bq/cm3


The leaked water is higher in density of radioactive materials than the water being injected into the reactors. The temperature of the water is also higher. Therefore we believe this is not the leak of water that is being injected into the reactor. We will continue to investigate the cause of the leak.

TEPCO's alert has a link to the latest nuclide analysis of water samples taken at different stages of contaminated water treatment (published on 1/17/2014).

According to that analysis, the highly contaminated water that sits in the reactor building basement (supposedly after having come to full contact with the corium) has:
Cesium-134: 1.0×10^4 Bq/cm3 (10,000 Bq/cm3)
Cesium-137: 2.5×10^4 Bq/cm3 (25,000 Bq/cm3)
Cobalt-60: 1.4 Bq/cm3 (after treatment with SARRY)
All-beta: 2.3×10^4 Bq/cm3 (23,000 Bq/cm3, before RO treatment)

While the Japanese media continues to not see much significance of this leak, the workers who have been tweeting from Fukushima I NPP from the beginning of the accident seem to worry. The issue here is NOT whether this water is currently leaking into the surrounding environment. The issue is whether the MSIV and/or its ancillary systems failed in the March 2011 accident.

"Sunny" (from tweets here and here) fears the worst, that the MSIV itself is broken:
MSIV・主蒸気隔離弁 原子力発電所の原子炉建屋とタービン建屋を繋ぐ主蒸気配管にある非常に大きなバルブ。これが閉じると言う事は炉心でとんでもないことが起きていることである。逆に言えば、そんなときに閉じないと困る。それが、そこからも水が漏れている。つまり、閉じていないか壊れたか。

MSIV (Main Steam Isolation Valve) is a huge valve attached to the main steam pipe that connects the reactor building and the turbine building. When this valve closes, it means there is some extraordinary incident happening in the reactor core. Conversely, one might say that it would be a problem if this valve did not close in such an incident. Now, the water is leaking from there [from the MSIV]. In other words, the valve was not shut, or it broke.


The reactor core is scrummed, but the MSIV doesn't close or it breaks and [the coolant=water] leaks. Do you know how terrifying this is? Instead of talking about restarting [the nuclear power plants in Japan], we would need to stop all reactors in the world to deal with the problem, just like [when we stopped] PWRs after the Three Mile Island accident. Wait, what is more terrifying is, how many people are aware that this could be a serious problem?

Someone expressed his surprise to "Sunny" that TEPCO announced the incident at all, if this was such a serious incident. (People in Japan also love to say "TEPCO lies.") "Sunny"'s answer was:

If this incident is what it is [the MSIV didn't close or broke in a severe emergency that necessitated the scrum], it should be shared with all nuclear plant operators and nuclear manufacturers in the entire world.
"Happy" hopes it is not the MSIV itself but ancillary pipe(s) that broke:

In the MSIV Room, other than the Main Steam Isolation Valve there are other systems and many small pipes, many of which connects directly to the reactor. We need to closely investigate inside the room to find out the cause [of the leak], but I'm afraid it will be a rather difficult task. The radiation level is high for workers to work inside, and it would be difficult for robots to navigate because of numerous pieces of equipment and pipes in a narrow space.

"Sunny" says he sure hopes it is a minor pipe that broke.

So was it a LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) because of either the failure of the MSIV or the ancillary system that is not supposed to fail, in addition to the water boiling off by the decay heat?

But as Happy says, the radiation levels are particularly high near the area of the leak (amounting to Sieverts/hour), and how TEPCO is going to "further investigate", as reported by happy-go-lucky media like NHK, is unknown.


#Fukushima I NPP Reactor 3: Water Leak from MSIV Room Could Be a Huge Problem for Nuclear Reactor Safety

This is a follow-up on yesterday's post.

TEPCO released the video which was being taken by the robot on the first floor of Reactor 3 and which was being monitored by a TEPCO employee who noticed the water.

The flow looks significant and fast.

From TEPCO's photos and video library, 1/18/2014:

Location of the MSIV Room:

Radiation levels on the 1st floor of Reactor 3, from yesterday's post:

The main steam isolation valve (MSIV) is one of the two most important safety systems in a nuclear reactor (the other one being the control rod drive mechanism). It seals off the water/steam from the Pressure Vessel in case of an emergency (like a big earthquake). This MSIV system is not supposed to fail.

If the MSIV of Reactor 3 was damaged during the March 11, 2011 earthquake/tsunami (either one) and the water has been leaking ever since, the safety standard for nuclear reactors around the world may be impacted, says one nuclear researcher that I follow on Twitter.

(Oh wait... Does it mean then that part of the reason why the water (coolant) inside the Reactor 3 Pressure Vessel dried up was because it was leaking through the damaged MSIV?)

To get a feel for the size of the MSIV, here's a photo and a video from one of the top manufacturers, Flowserve:

The 1st floor of Reactor 3 is where the human workers ventured in in June 2011 for the first time since the start of the accident on March 11, 2011 and took the smear samples from the floor. The result of the analysis of the smear samples, if it was ever done, hasn't been released.

The location of the floor drain funnel is near the equipment hatch shield plug that was found slightly open, through which highly radioactive steam/water had been leaking. (TEPCO finally admitted the shield plug had been open on April 19, 2012, more than one full year after the start of the accident.)

Packbot was sent on November 18/19, 2011 to clean the hatch rail with what looked like a white towel. The result of the analysis of what the towel caught, if it was ever done, hasn't been released.

(Now I think about it, the towel Packbot was using was soaking-wet, and even on the next day after the cleaning the guide rails were very wet. I have assumed the water on the guide rails was from inside the Containment Vessel, but is it possible that it has been coming from the MSIV Room?)

From @BB45_Colorado, one of the nuclear researchers that I follow:

If the leak from (or from near) the Main Steam Isolation Valve is from the start of the accident, that means the MSIV couldn't withstand the earthquake and/or internal abnormal pressurization. This is bad in the heart of the BWR safety design. It could affect the safety reviews worldwide.

Browsing the articles by the mainstream media in Japan (eg. YomiuriMainichi/Kyodo) on this incident, it seems to me that they don't know what MSIV is or its importance.

Energy News.....

Senior Scientist at MIT Event: Japanese scientists censored — Not allowed to publish research that compared Fukushima to Chernobyl — Fukushima ‘arguably’ bigger

Newspaper ignores scientific models that show Fukushima radiation impacting West Coast — Fails to inform readers by only reporting on discredited tsunami wave-height map — “What illness of the mind must people have to lie about the threat?” (ACTUAL FORECAST MODELS)

Navy Officers on TV: “My body is falling apart” after Japan rescue mission, his right side “just didn’t work” — Another “can no longer use his legs” and unable to urinate — If 300 times normal radiation is OK, I don’t know what to tell you

Nuclear Engineer: Footage shows me “it’s broken… there’s really no containment” at Fukushima Reactor 3 — I expect many different kinds of leaks will be found — Radioactive contaminants “basically floating freely” (AUDIO)

Wall St. Journal (Japan): ‘US physicians claim radiation risks due to Fukushima nuclear accident’ — ‘Uncertainty’ over quality of radiation data from officials

Kyodo News: Fukushima raises concerns over “viability of Japan’s future” — Former Prime Minister: Reactor restarts “a criminal act toward future generations”; “Fate of country” at stake; “Myth that nuclear power clean and safe has collapsed”

Highest Yet: Radiation level hits new record in Fukushima groundwater well — Over 3,000,000 Bq/liter of strontium and beta emitters

Nuclear Expert: Fukushima “very critical for entire humankind”; “Japan won’t let any foreign experts visit… they are behaving rather strangely” — Nuclear Scientist: Radioactive emissions still taking place all the time; Pouring contamination in ocean may cause “elimination of fish resources”

Nuclear Expert: This is just 1st radioactive wave hitting U.S. and Canada; Fukushima pouring into ocean, unstoppable for years and years — Marine Expert: No sign it will stop anytime soon; Plant unstable, potentially worse than Chernobyl (AUDIO)

Marine Chemist: Latest numbers I have are Fukushima released 80 Quadrillion Bq of cesium-137 (Chernobyl estimated at 70 Quadrillion) — “The radioactive plume itself has actually arrived… it’s already here” on west coast (AUDIO)

Scientific American: Fukushima will have to be entombed in sarcophagus if melted fuel in ‘bad enough’ situation — Radiation Expert: I think they’re going to put a fence around reactors and just watch site forever (VIDEO)

TV: High-level radiation leak at Fukushima reactor thought to be from “cracks in containment vessel” — “Even more radioactive than expected” — Salt corrosion may have led to breach (VIDEO)

TV: Nuclear workers “stripped naked, soaked in sweat… gasping for air” — “My teeth started breaking off” — “It’s as if they are the living dead” — “Democracy destroyed in areas where nuclear power exists” (VIDEO)

Officials by West Coast Speak Out on Fukushima: Concerns about cancer, illness from contaminated food — ‘Low-level’ radiation being reported in fish — “We cannot sit by and watch and wait” — National gov’t appears to not be taking it seriously

Senior Scientist: Second radioactive plume headed to California — “Effects of Fukushima will be increasing” as front edge of large water plume arrives — Levels to rise for years — “It’s a health and safety issue here” yet no one testing ocean (VIDEO)

UC Berkeley Professor: California seeing Fukushima fallout won’t be a surprise — ‘Especially concerned’ after radioactive leaks at plant were admitted — “I’m not terribly confident in information Japan is sharing”

Navy Sailor: Crew members lost control of their bowels after Fukushima radiation exposure, as skin rashes developed; “It was a real big problem” — Congress signs bill making military conduct health survey (VIDEO)

Japan TV: ‘Problem on their hands’ at Fukushima, constant flow of water pouring from foot-wide leak at Reactor 3; “They don’t know where water it’s coming from” — WSJ: Radiation level spikes 60-fold in seconds nearby (VIDEO)

Fox News: Fukushima contamination is hitting California — “Humans are terrified” of eating it — “It’s an open question” about the risks — “You’re not scared? To me, if someone tells me there’s low levels of radioactivity in that fish…” (VIDEO)

TV: “Many young people in Fukushima who are in high school have died suddenly”; Officials “ignore all the problems” — Former Mayor: People are always told “any disease they have is not caused by radiation” (VIDEO)

Former Official in Fukushima: “This is a disaster of all humanity… the entire world” — “It’s on an international level, huge consequences” — “Now bigger than anything we can cope with” (VIDEO)

TV: California seafood is tainted from Fukushima disaster, says chef — Anything from San Diego to Alaska removed — “It’s easy for people to be convinced there’s no harm now, that’s part of problem” (VIDEO)

Japan TV: It gets worse every minute at Fukushima plant, groundwater mixing with melted fuel — Gundersen: There’s no end in sight because the nuclear core is in contact with groundwater (VIDEO)

Gundersen: New development at Fukushima, “Essentially entire plant has a gamma ray haze over it… a haze of radioactive particles” — Tepco: It’s impossible to stop, using more shielding won’t help (AUDIO)

Radio: US Navy sailors had radioactive snow ball fights off Fukushima — Crew “pretty well toast” after weeks on Pacific… significant cancers, incessant bleeding from anus or vagina, blindness — Debris from USS Reagan sent to Hanford nuclear waste site (AUDIO)

Simply Info.....

Alaska & Washington Salmon Tested For Radiation

Alaska & Washington Salmon Tested For Radiation
A Seattle fish company had some of their fish privately tested in late 2013. With all the US government agencies refusing to test anything and growing consumer anxiety due to the lack of information, Loki Fish company paid for private testing. This is some of the only North American seafood testing done. While the current findings of these limited samples is … Read entire article »

Torus Ultrasound Inspection Being Done On Unit 2

Torus Ultrasound Inspection Being Done On Unit 2
TEPCO has done test runs with the ultrasound robot intended to detect the water level inside the torus tubes at Fukushima Daiichi. Tests done at unit 5 and unit 4 gave some information about the best way to obtain readings. They did run into issues in unit 4 where there was a thin layer of oil on the water. This … Read entire article »

US Congress Requests Data From USS Ronald Reagan Fukushima Response

US Congress Requests Data From USS Ronald Reagan Fukushima Response
US Congress has requested data related to the exposures. “Lawmakers requested not only an inventory of any adverse medical conditions experienced by Ronald Reagan sailors, they want a detailed account of actions taken by the service to prevent radiation exposure, minimize it or treat it among affected personnel.” The US Navy has insisted nobody received dangerous exposures but has only referenced … Read entire article »

Two New Pacific Radiation Monitoring Programs Launch

Two New Pacific Radiation Monitoring Programs Launch
Woods Hole has officially launched their program to continue testing the Pacific for cesium concentrations due to the Fukushima nuclear disaster. The website has information on how people or communities can sponsor testing or supply samples. Currently the testing completed to date by Woods Hole has been put online on an interactive map. The interactive map can be viewed directly here. … Read entire article »

ALPS Still Not Meeting Targets, Operation Date Uncertain

ALPS Still Not Meeting Targets, Operation Date Uncertain
NRA is saying that ALPS is still not meeting the radiation removal targets claimed for the system. A problem with the removal of radioactive iodine is still unsolved. A target date for full operation is still not being set due to the setbacks.   This article would not be possible without the extensive efforts of the SimplyInfo research team Join the conversation at … Read entire article »

NRA Releases New Radiation Zone Maps

NRA Releases New Radiation Zone Maps
The NRA has released new radiation “fly over” maps. The newest scans were done in September of 2013. They showed a slight reduction in the highest level zones. This is likely due to the decrease in shorter lived radiation like cesium 134 and migration of contamination by natural processes. NRA cited the more recent changes in the shape of the … Read entire article »

TEPCO Releases More Details About Frozen Wall

TEPCO Releases More Details About Frozen Wall
TEPCO released a short video (in Japanese) giving more information about the test run of the frozen wall technology. The test location has been running for at least a month according to previous reports. The video provided a few more views of the equipment being used and the sealing capability. The test location appears to have been running successfully. This … Read entire article »

Fukushima Diary......

Reactor3 coolant water leakage → 1/3 of injected water was leaking / Tepco doesn’t know when it started

Note : If you are from the international mass media, Don’t read this site before having a contact with me.

Following up this article.. [Video] Possible direct leakage of reactor3 coolant water to the building [URL]

1.5 L/h of possible coolant water was directly leaking from the PCV (Primary Containment Vessel) of reactor3, according to Tepco.
They inject 5.5 L of coolant water per hour. This means approx. 27% of the coolant water was leaking out of the vessel.

Tepco also stated they got to see the leakage because they removed the debris, so they don’t know since when it has been leaking.
It is reported that the volume of leakage significantly decreased on 1/21/2014, however it is not known what caused the change of volume, such as because the molten fuel moved inside of PCV.

Contamination level in seaside of reactor2 still skyrocketing / 2,700,000,000 → 3,100,000,000 Bq/m3

Note : If you are from the international mass media, Don’t read this site before having a contact with me.

Following up this article.. Contamination level in seaside of reactor2 skyrocketing / 2,400,000,000 → 2,700,000,000 Bq/m3 [URL]

All β nuclide density is still rapidly increasing in the groundwater of seaside of reactor2. It was 2,700,000,000 Bq/m3 on 1/16/2014, but it jumped up to be 3,100,000,000 Bq/m3 on 1/20/2014.
This is 3.4 times much as the density of 2 months ago.

875,000,000,000,000 Bq of Tritium contained in 

total contaminated water / Over 60 times much 

as safety limit

Note : If you are from the international mass media, Don’t read this site before having a contact with me.

Following up this article.. [Column] Contaminated water will be discharged to the Pacific[URL]

The total volume of Tritium contained in the stocked contaminated water is 875 trillion Bq. Tepco submitted the data to Tritium task force of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.
Currently 400,000 tonnes of contaminated water is stocked in the tanks. 817 trillion Bq of Tritium is contained in it.
Additionally contaminated water is also stocked in reactor buildings etc.. The part of contaminated water outside of the tanks contain 58 trillion Bq of Tritium.
Tritium is not going to be filtered.
This is 59 times much as the annual safety limit of 4 reactors to discharge to the sea. This means, they would take over 59 years to resolve the current water problem even if they choose to discharge it to the sea. In reality, the volume of contaminated water is increasing by over 400m3 per day.

Radiation level in another boring well in 

seaside of reactor2 increasing since November 


Note : If you are from the international mass media, Don’t read this site before having a contact with me.

Related to this article.. Contamination level in seaside of reactor2 skyrocketing / 2,400,000,000 → 2,700,000,000 Bq/m3 [URL]

Tritium and All β (including Strontium-90) density have been increasing in another boring well in the seaside of reactor2.
According to Tepco’s data, both of Tritium and All β started increasing around 11/6/2013. In these 2 months, both of the density increased approx. 10 times.
Tepco has made no explanation about this trend.

Contamination level in seaside of reactor2 

skyrocketing / 2,400,000,000 → 2,700,000,000 


Note : If you are from the international mass media, Don’t read this site before having a contact with me.

Following up this article.. Contamination level in seaside of reactor2 still increasing / 2,100,000,000 → 2,400,000,000 Bq/m3 [URL]

All β nuclide density (including Strontium-90) is still increasing in the seaside of reactor2 (As graph below). On 1/13/2014, it was 2,400,000,000 Bq/m3 but it spiked up to be 2,700,000,000 Bq/m3 on 1/16/2014. 
Tepco is still repeating the same explanation that it is possibly because the groundwater pump is gathering highly contaminated water underground and denying the possibility of the new leakages.

1.6 Sv/h on the first floor of reactor1 / Highly 

radioactive source is in the vent pipe

Note : If you are from the international mass media, Don’t read this site before having a contact with me.

1.6 Sv/h was measured on the first floor of reactor1, according to Tepco.
From 12/22 ~ 12/24/2013, Tepco attempted to survey the radiation dose in the south part of reactor1 first floor.  They used a remote controlling robot with gamma camera supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.
As a result, highly radioactive parts were found near the inert gas pipes, which were used to venting in 311.
The radiation dose was higher at 150cm than 5cm from the floor. The highest reading of 1.6 Sv/h was measured near the vent pipe going up to the second floor.
The second highest reading was 1.1 Sv/h. It was also near the vent pipe.
This is also where they measured 5.15 Sv/h in “vapor” coming up. (cf, [Reactor1] 5.2 Sv/h on the first floor [URL])
Tepco is planning to take the concrete core sample from around the issued area in order to check if contamination has penetrated into the concrete.

↓ The photos taken by the robot with gamma camera. The warmer the color goes, the higher the dose is.

Related article.. 2Sv/h detected on the 1st floor of reactor1 [URL 2]